Simple 3 ways to Extract DNA from Chicken Liver, Onion and Banana
What is DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid)
DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) supplies genetic information which determines as to what kind of creature and what characters would be formed in any living organism. Deoxyribonucleic acid, a self-replicating material present in almost all living organisms as the main component of chromosomes.
If we could zoom in on a single, tiny cell, we could see an even teenier “container” inside called a nucleus. It holds a stringy substance called DNA, which is like a set of blueprints, or instructions. DNA contains a code for how to build a life-form and put together the features that make that organism unique. Segments, or pieces, of DNA, are called “genes”. In living things, such as us, each gene determines something about our bodies—a trait. In our DNA there are genes that are responsible for hair colour, eye colour, earlobe shape and so on. We get our DNA from our parents. Some characteristics, like eye colour, are pretty much entirely determined by DNA. Some are determined both by DNA and by your environment as you grow up, like how tall you will be as an adult. And some traits are not very directly tied to DNA at all, like the kind of books you like to read.
Just like us, banana plants have genes and DNA in their cells, and just like us, their DNA determines their traits. Using only our eyes, we couldn’t see a single cell or the DNA inside of it. If we remove DNA from millions of cells, however, we will be able to view it without a microscope. That is what we will do today!
1. How to extract DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid From chicken liver
- Chicken liver 50g
- Ice cold pure ethanol 500ml
- Acetorein ( Acetocarmine)
- Blender, Beaker (1000ml, 200ml)
- Glass bar
- Cotton gauze
- 2mol/l NaCl solution (NaCl 60g
- Water 500ml) Detergent solution (Liquid detergent 1push
- Water 200ml)
- Blend frozen chicken liver in the blender for 3 minutes.
- Divide 30ml liver juice for each group.
- Add 30ml of 2mol/l NaCl solution and stir it gently.
- Boiling (3)liquid for 5minutes.
- Filtrating (4)liquid by cotton gauze immediately and cooling by ice.
- Pour ice cold pure ethanol (double the amount of (5)liquid) gently along the glass bar.
- After a few seconds, white fibres ( look like cotton ) appear in the ethanol layer.( It is DNA.)
- Stain the white fibers by acetorcein (acetocarmine).
Extraction of DNA From chicken liver
DNA is easily to be cut by physical instinct because of a long chain structure. Therefore, need to stir gently. Operate quickly! Because there is a DNA resolve enzyme in cells. Since there is a surface-active agent in liquid detergent, the detergent destroys cell membrane and protein.
2. Step by step extraction of DNA from onion
- Ice cold 60% ethanol
- Acetoin ( Acetocarmine)
- Glass bar
- Tea strainer
Liquid for extraction of DNA ( NaCl 12g
- Liquid detergent 20ml, Water 180ml)
Blend internal leaves of onion in the mixer ( blender) for 30seconds.
(2) Add 20ml of the liquid for extraction of DNA and stir it gently. Then leave it for 10minutes.
(3)Put a tea strainer (sieve) on a small beaker and strain the liquid.
(4) Pour ice cold 60%ethanol ( double the amount of the liquid ) gently along the side of the beaker.
(5) After a few seconds, white fibers ( look like cotton ) appear in the ethanol layer. ( It is DNA.)
(6) Stain the white fibers by acetorcein ( acetocarmine ).
- DNA is easily to be cut by physical instinct because of a long chain structure. Therefore, need to stir gently.
- Operate quickly! Because there is a DNA resolve enzyme in cells.
- Since there is a surface-active agent in
liquid detergent, the detergent destroys cell membrane and protein.
What is DNA? DNA stores genetic information which determines as to what type of organism and what characters would be produced in any living organism.
Why is it possible to extract DNA by ice-cold alcohol? Because the relative density of DNA is lightler than other components and solubility of ice-cold alcohol is low. This is why DNA appears in the alcohol layer.
3. How to Extract DNA From a Banana
Extract DNA From a Banana: What do you have in common with a banana? Even though we might not look alike, all living things—bananas and people included—are made up of the same basic material.
Just like houses are made up of smaller units such as bricks, all living things are made up trillions of microscopic building blocks called cells. Within an organism, each cell contains a complete set of “blueprints”. These directions determine the organism’s characteristics.
Materials & Tools:
- Dish Washing Liquid
- Petri Dish
- Cutting Board
- Tea Strainer
- Cutter, Tea Spoon
- Match Box
- Spirit Lamp
- Tripod Stand with Wire Gauze
- Take an onion or banana, peel it and chop into small pieces.
- Take about 30ml water in a beaker.
- Add one teaspoon of salt in the beaker and stir.
- And two teaspoons of liquid the solution and stir well, avoiding bubble formation.
- Put the chopped onions in the blender.
- Also, add the solution in the beaker to the blender.
- Blend them for about one or two minutes to get a smooth mixture
- Pour the mixture from the blender into a beaker.
- Heat the mixture for about 1-2 minutes, stirring it from time to time.
- Put the tea strainer on a beaker and filter the mixture.
- Take ethanol in a petro dish.
- Pour the filtrate gently into ethanol.
- Observe the DNA strands appearing in the ethanol.